Pacific Citizen 7/9/1942

The Pacific Citizen Thursday, July 9, 1942



The first exclusion orders for Zone 2 of Central California followed closely those covering the 20 counties of Northern California. Lindsay District of Tulare County and Fresno City and Clovis District of Fresno County have been ordered to go to the Colorado River Project, more commonly known as Parker Dam and officially as Poston, Arizona. When this center is completed, it will be one of the largest cities of Arizona.

According to information available, Poston is on an Indian Reservation like some of the other relocation centers. The irrigation project was started in 1860 but has not been finished, for the Indians did not move into this reservation.

The canal has been brought into the relocation center; so now the water is abundant. The torrid heat of Arizona climbs to heights which are not dreamed of by Californians, excepting those in the Imperial Valley.

At times the temperature has climbed to 118 degrees inside; 138 degrees outside in the shade; and 150 degrees four inches from the ground. Our Bay Region friends would shrink with dismay if they were told that they were going into this hot region. A little conditioning, however, can bring about changes. Human beings are great at adapting themselves to new conditions. It is the only way in which one can survive.

Those in Central California have received excellent conditioning during the hot spell of last week when they had five days of 110 degrees. After this siege, 100 degrees seemed to be cool and 80 degrees cold. Of course we must admit that the outposts of civilization may not have the luxuries we have at our command to alleviate the tortures from the heat. But today we are positive that we can withstand heat. While we moan, groan and perspire, the day passes by and the evening brings relief.

This evacuation business is without question a great adventure. It will have its humorous side if we don't take life too seriously in all its aspects. Unless we maintain our normal balance, we are going to be lost souls.


Some 28,000 Japanese at the War Relocation Authority's three relocation centers at Manzanar, Tule Lake and Poston, Ariz., observed the Fourth of July with appropriate ceremonies.

As the sun rose over the mesas bordering the Colorado River Valley, 8,500 at the Poston Center gathered for flag-raising ceremonies and for a patriotic address by Wade Head, the Project Director. This ceremony was followed by the planting of the Founders' Grove of 40 mulberry trees purchased by the evacuees as a contribution to the landscaping of the center.

In the evening the evacuees participated in a Water Pageant commemorating the completion of the main irrigation canal to the relocation city.

BERKELEY, Calif. — Kaneto Arita, one of the pitchers on Harry Kingman's Freshman baseball team at the University of California, received a pleasant surprise recently when informed that he had been awarded his class numerals and a sweater. Due to evacuation orders Arita had left the team in the middle of the season and the award came to him as a complete surprise. His teammates remembered him at the close of the season by sending him an autographed baseball. He is at Poston, Arizona.



SAN FRANCISCO —Lieut. Gen.J. L. DeWitt moved into Southern California July 3 with the Army's program to exclude all persons of Japanese ancestry from the state of California when he issued Civilian Exclusion Orders 103 and 104 affecting portions of Tulare and Fresno Counties, all of. Inyo County and that portion of Kern County in Military Area No. 2.

The bulk of southern California was cleared by June 6, when the last Japanese from Military Area No 1 were moved to Assembly and Relocation Centers.

Together with orders 100, 101 and 102 issued June 20, the new orders virtually complete Japanese evacuation within the state with the exception of northern San Bernardino County a small are surrounding Fresno in Fresno County, northern Tulare County and the Assembly and Relocation Centers already established under military control. The Assembly Centers are being emptied of Japanese as fast as the Relocation Centers are prepared for occupancy. Evacuees will be allowed to take personal belongings, bedding, linen and necessary household items with them, providing the total weight of such items does not exceed 150 pounds for adults and 75 pounds for children under 12 years of age.

Heavy household furniture maybe stored at the evacuee's expense pending delivery to a Relocation Center later and smaller items may be shipped also at the expense of evacuees to the center by parcel post or railway express.

Civilian Exclusion Order No. 103 affects approximately 1,000 persons living in that portion of Fresno County officially described as:

"All that portion of the County of Fresno, State of California, lying within Military Area 2."

A responsible member of each family and each individual living alone will report to the Civil Central Control Station in the Clovis Union High school gymnasium, corner Fifth and Baron Streets, Clovis, between the hours of 8 a.m and 5 p. m., Wednesday, July 8, or Thursday, July 9.

Evacuees will be transported to the Colorado River Relocation Center on Monday, July 13, Tuesday, July 14,Wednesday, July 15, and Thursday, July 16, with 250 persons affected each day.

Civilian Exclusion Order No. 104 affects approximately 750 persons living in those portions of Inyo, Kern and Tulare Counties officially described as:

"all of the County of Inyo, State of California, and all those portions of the Counties of Tulare and Kern, State of California, within Military Area 2."

A responsible member of each family and each individual living alone will report to the Civil Control Station in the Lincoln Junior High School, corner of Howard and Hermosa Streets, Lindsay, between the hours of 8 a .m. and 5 p. m. Wednesday, July 8, and Thursday, July 9.

Evacuees will be transported to the Colorado River Relocation Center on Monday, July 13,Tuesday, July 14, and Wednesday, July 15, with 250 persons affected each day.

Japanese included in the orders issued June 30, by General DeWitt, will be moved to the Tule Lake Relocation Center in Modoc County, Northern California. Those under Order No. 100 will move Thursday, July 9, those under Order 101, Saturday, July 11, and those under Order 102, Friday, July10, and Sunday, July 12.

CLOVIS, Calif. — The Clovis branch of the National Security and Fair Play Committeee was organized at a meeting in the Methodist Church Annex to assist Japanese aliens and Americans of Japanese descent in their evacuation to relocation centers.

The major work of the committee will be to obtain automobiles and trucks to transport persons and luggage on evacuation day. Another part of the committee's work is to obtain boxes and small trunks for carrying personal effects and larger trunks and boxes for storage purposes.

Rev. Ralph Mason Dreger was chosen chairman of the group. Organizing the group were Rev. F. V. Dabold, Mrs. Virgil Ambrosia, and Wayne Hall. Others serving on the committee are Mr. and Mrs. C. Merriman, M. Galliano, M. G. Reavis, Mr. and Mrs. C. Lemmon and T. Pendergrass.

The Pacific Citizen 6/11/1942

The Pacific Citizen Thursday June 11, 1942

General DeWitt Issues Warning on Japanese In Army Uniforms

The Western Defense Command in San Francisco issued a warning last week cautioning citizens to be on the alert for Japanese persons wearing U. S. Army uniforms in the Pacific Coast combat zone. Lt. Gen. DeWitt noted that all American-born Japanese in the U. S. Army had been removed from the Western Defense Command and the Fourth Army and transferred to interior posts.

There are approximately four thousand American Japanese in the U. S. Army, the majority of whom are now serving at posts in Arkansas, Missouri, Louisiana, Illinois, Minnesota and Kansas. Gen. DeWitt's warning stated that only three Japanese were on official duty within the Western Defense Command. They were assigned to special work at Fort Ord, Calif.

PHILADELPHIA, Pa. — Student relocation problems were discussed by Mike Masaoka and George Inagaki, special representatives of the National JACL, at a conference with the American Friends Service Committee in Philadelphia last Thursday. The details of the .program for relocating nisei collegians in inland schools will be announced as soon as details are ironed out, it is believed.

Inagaki arrived in Philadelphia from New York City where he participated in a dinner meeting last Tuesday with nisei leaders of the New York area on problems mutually affecting eastern and western Japanese Americans. After the meeting in Philadelphia, the JACL representatives returned to Washington.


WASHINGTON—The FBI seized 364 enemy aliens considered dangerous during May, bringing the total apprehended since December 7 to 8844, the Justice Department announced. They were 4611 Japanese, 2869 Germans and 1364 Italians.

SAN FRANCISCO — Movement of approximately 11,000 Japanese from temporary Pacific Coast Assembly and Reception Centers to homes "for the duration" in permanent Relocation Centers was announced today by Colonel Karl R. Bendetsen, Assistant Chief of Staff, Civil Affairs Division, Western Defense Command and Fourth Army.

Under the new orders covering movement of Japanese inland from the temporary Assembly and Reception Centers, the estimated 11,000 Japanese to be relocated will be moved from the Mayer Center in Arizona to the Poston Relocation project near Parker, Arizona; and from the Portland, Oregon, Puyallup, Washington, and Marysville, Sacramento and Salinas Assembly Centers in California to the Tule Lake Relocation Center in Northern California.

The Tule Lake Center has already been set up, with the transfer there from Portland and Puyallup Assembly Centers late in May of an advance contingent totaling approximately 500.

On June 2 approximately 250 evacuees were moved from Mayer, Arizona, to the Poston project.

The next movement will begin June 15, when approximately 4,800 evacuees will be transported from the Sacramento Assembly Center, at the rate of 500 per day, to the Tule Lake Reclamation Center.

Beginning June 24 an approximate total of 2,500 Japanese will begin moving from the Marysville Assembly Center to Tule Lake. On June 28 the first of approximately 3,600 will begin moving from Salinas Assembly Center in California to Poston Relocation Center in Arizona.


Servicing Japanese in communities affected by General DeWitt's proclamation ordering eventual evacuation of California's Military Area 2, five new WCCA offices were opened on June 5.

These service centers will help Japanese in the affected area dispose of their property and will prepare them for the transition to the assembly centers.

More than 10,000 Japanese are believed affected by the new proclamation. Of this group some 5,000 are believed to have voluntarily evacuated to this zone from Military Area I before the March 29 'freezing' order.

Large groups of American citizens and alien Japanese established themselves in Tulare and Fresno counties. There has been a considerable amount of agitation from public officials in the valley counties and from certain farm interests for the inclusion of this district in the evacuation order.

WCCA Service Centers for the California portions of Military Area 2 will be opened at the following locations:
Chico — 509 Main Street, Paul Little, manager.
Marysville — 319 "C" Street, William Harvey, manager.
Auburn — City Hall, Thomas Harvey, manager.
Reedley — City Hall, Ivan H. Merritt, manager.
Visalia — 500 North Garden Street, Leo Fisher, manager.

The WCCA is urging all Japanese in Military Area 2 in California to make contact with officials of the service center closest to their place of residence.


Americans of Japanese ancestry, defending their country against the Nipponese invaders, were killed in action in Hawaii on Dec-3—More than four thousand American-born Japanese in the continental U. S. proudly wear Uncle Sam's khaki and are in training to fight in this global war for survival. In Hawaii are additional thousands in the regular Army and in the Territorial Guard. The American Japanese have been proud of their record of participation in the defense of the United States. They have not flinched in the face of demands for great sacrifice. When their evacuation from the Pacific Coast states was ordered on the basis of military necessity, they went cheerfully and willingly, secure in the belief that their acquiescence to the military orders was in the best interests of national security. Military and civilian officials have attested to the splendid co-operation of Americans of Japanese race during the trying days of evacuation.

But today with thousands of brother Americans of Japanese descent in the fighting services of the United States, a strange contradiction has arisen.

American Japanese whose draft numbers have been called in recent weeks are being told in effect that they are not wanted by the U. S. Army. A letter received by one of these potential inductees from his draft board reads:

"We have received instructions from National Headquarters . . . that all Japanese calls to service have been cancelled."

Some of these young Americans who have been in Class 1-A in the draft have just been notified that they have been reclassified and are now in Class 4-C. Class 4-C is the classification of aliens ineligible for the U. S. Army. Classification in 4-C is a slap in the face to any loyal young American.

American Japanese are anxious to do their part in the winning of the war. Their only hope for the future lies in the decisive victory of the forces of democracy and decency. But the democratic principles of equality and fair play for which America fights abroad must be maintained at home. Democracy is not a pretty political theory which can be placed on a pedestal for admiration. Democracy is a way of life which must be practiced constantly.

We hope that this policy of classifying able young Americans of fighting age in Class 4-C is not a general one nor one which will be continued. Such a practice merely encourages the forces of reaction which even today are sniping away at the civil rights of American Japanese, which are already planning to make impossible their return to their homes after the war and which are attempting to bring Hitler's Nuremberg race laws to America.

Post office facilities at Poston were opened last week. The office will operate as a classified branch of the Phoenix post office. Paul Famer is in charge of the mailing division.

Camp manager at Poston is Wade Head. Army engineers have labeled Poston's three sections as Little Tokyo, Little Osaka and Little Kobe, but the evacuees will change the names to MacArthur, Colin Kelley and "Jimmy" Doolittle.

The Pacific Citizen 6/4/1942

The Pacific Citizen Thursday, June 4, 1942

     SACRAMENTO — Major Painter, Provost Marshal at Elk Grove, reported to the sheriff's office Friday night that vandals were overrunning crop lands evacuated by the Japanese, picking fruit and damaging considerable property. The same situation existed at Florin, he said. Deputies were dispatched to the scene but made no arrests.
     Sheriff Cox announced that any persons caught picking "crops without permission on evacuated farms would be arrested. Farm officials here estimated that a major part of Florin's $600,000 strawberry crop had been doomed by evacuation.

Two suits which seek to deprive 5,000 American citizen Japanese in San Francisco and Alameda counties have been filed in Federal District Court by representatives of the Native Sons of the Golden West, the American Legion and the Joint Immigration Committee.
     Saburo Kido, National JACL President, has announced that the suits will be contested by Bay Region JACL chapters and by the National JACL. Kido has also stated that the JACL has consistently cooperated with army and civilian authorities in the evacuation and in all matters of military necessity and the JACL has not raised any questions as to the constitutionality of orders issued in connection with evacuation. However, he has noted that any attacks on the civil rights which are not vital to national defense will be resisted in the courts in order that the rights of all Americans of Japanese ancestry may be fully protected and preserved.
       Main figure in the suits against American-born Japanese is U. S. Webb, state attorney-general for nine terms who has been long identified with movements against resident Japanese in California. Webb who is believed attempting a 'comeback' politically is representing the plaintiffs. He said the suits were filed "at the request of the American Legion, the Native Sons and the Joint Immigration Committee.
     Filed by John T. Regan in San Francisco and James K. Fisk in Oakland the suits name as defendants Cameron King, San Francisco registrar of voters, and G. E. Wade, Alameda County Clerk and Registrar of Voters. The suits ask the Federal Court to order the registrars to strike from the registration books the names of all American voters, of Japanese ancestry, contending that the Japanese have been illegally admitted to citizenship.
     The suits seek to obtain a new ruling by the U. S. Supreme Court whereby those of Japanese descent born in this country will not be considered American citizens. It has already been announced that the Native Sons will also seek a constitutional amendment which would deny citizenship to all persons of Japanese descent. A campaign to raise funds for the sponsorship of such legislation has already been undertaken by the Native Sons group.
     The American Civil Liberties Union has also announced that it is interested in protecting the civil rights of all citizens and will appear in the case with the special permission of the court.
      Ernest Besig, Director of the San Francisco office of the ACLU, has strongly condemned the suits filed to deprive U. S.-born Japanese of their voting rights. This is a cruel and preposterous attempt to nullify express constitutional guarantees and an attack upon the rights of all minorities," he said.
     Meanwhile, U. S.-born Japanese now in assembly and reception centers have been advised that they are eligible to vote as absentees in the coming primary elections if they are properly registered.

     The Western Defense Command ordered the eventual evacuation of all Japanese residing in California in Military Area 2. The latest order from General DeWitt came as a surprise, since General DeWitt had stated previously that Japanese voluntarily evacuating Military Area I would probably not again be bothered by exclusion orders for the duration.
      In Public Proclamation No. 6 issued Tuesday by the Western Defense Command in San Francisco, all persons of Japanese ancestry were prohibited from leaving Military Area 2 after 12 noon, June 2. Curfew hours between 8 p. m. and 6 a. m. were set for Japanese within Military 2. A travel limit of ten miles from their places of residence was set.
     "All alien Japanese and persons of Japanese ancestry will be excluded from said California portion of Military Area 2 by future orders or proclamations," it was announced.
     The order came on the heels of a meeting in Sacramento on May 25 when representatives of California counties within Military Area 2 asked for restrictive measures for Japanese persons. The Associated Farmers and other "pressure" groups were active in proposing restrictions for Japanese in the California "free zone."

     POSTON, Ariz. —The vanguard of the eventual 20,000 residents of the Parker irrigation area in Arizona, largest of the WRA's relocation projects, has arrived at Poston and now are busily engaged in planning and building their homes for the duration.
     Officials here hope to make this wild desert land one of the most productive areas in the west and a vital factor in America's "Food for Victory" program.
     The first group of evacuees, 2,300 from Orange and San Diego counties, moved into Poston last week. They joined an advance guard of 275 doctors, nurses, cooks and administrative officials who had arrived previously.
     Food crops, sugar beets, and guayule (for making rubber) are being considered for the 80,000 acres which will eventually be placed under cultivation on the Colorado River Indian reservation by Japanese evacuees from west coast areas.

     MAYER, Ariz. — Mayer Reception Center, temporary home for Arizona's evacuated Japanese, resembles the "Main Street" of any cleaner-than-usual American summer town, rather than a "Little Tokyo," according to a reporter for the Arizona Republic of Phoenix who visited the center recently.
     The Mayer Center was formerly a Civilian Conservation Corps camp and is set in one of the brightest spots in this part of Arizona, which is 85 miles north of Phoenix. The camp is set in a little valley rich in shade trees and surrounded by scrub- covered hills. Thomas B. Rice is manager of the center.
(Note: The people at Mayer Assembly Center were later moved to Poston camp I.)

Pacific Citizen 9/24/1942

The Pacific Citizen
September 24, 1942
     POSTON — Transition of the Poston Community Enterprise into a full-fledged cooperative, is expected soon, it was revealed here last week by the Press Bulletin.
     Following the circulation of petitions for a consumer cooperative W. Wade Head, project director revealed that an overwhelming majority of residents favored the initiation of the cooperative. "I regard this petition as a clear mandate from the people," said Head. He disclosed that in Poston 1,387 out of 5,800 voting residents signed the petition, that in Camp 2, the signatures were 2033 out of 2600 voting residents, and in Camp 3, 1305 out of 2400.
     Head announced that he will invite the residents to organize an extensive discussion campaign with systematic discussion groups and mass meetings. Following this preliminary period, an election will be held about October 15 to select a board of directors for each of the three camps. Both Nisei and Issei will have the right to vote and hold office.
     The circulation of the petition was praised by Head as "an important and thoroughly democratic achievement which in itself is a clear proof that Poston is well on the road to self-government. He praised the Community Enterprise and declared that it had "laid the groundwork and trained the personnel that guarantee success for a cooperative."

     Little Esteban Points Out Recreational Needs
     Little Esteban was feeling pretty awful and low when I found him perched up on a branch of a mesquite tree just on the outskirts of Poston. A big yellow slab of an Autumn moon was sailing through the skies and a crisp tangy breeze was whipping in over the dusty flats. It was quiet and peaceful and nice. But Little Esteban did not seem aware of all this—he was worried again about some serious matter.
     "What's on your mind, Little Esteban," I asked, "you're not yourself tonight."
     "I was just thinking, kiddo," he said as he looked far off into the dim-lit spaces.
     "Thinking about what?" I wanted to know.
     "Well," said Little Esteban, "I just found out that the government can't afford to give us any more recreational equipment, and that we'll have to get them for ourselves. And when you start thinking about all the possible things that could happen, then you really got something to worry about."
     "For instance, what?" I asked in my usual and indescribable stupidity.
           "Look, kiddo," said Little Esteban, "there are about 1,400 kids here in the school age group of between 6 and 16 and some more between 16 and 26 who would all be in need of some sort of recreation during their free times. Of course schools will begin in October but in the meantime there's going to be the problem of keeping these kids and the young people occupied with some wholesome type of recreation. And even after school starts, you still have to provide recreation for them in the evenings."
     "But then," said I, "I see those kids playing ball almost every evening. They seem to have enough to do."
     "Yes, but how many of them do you see?" Little Esteban shot back an angry tone, "there's about 400 of them playing in three or games which are played just about every night on every field, there's only about thirty balls, twenty five bats and fifty gloves, and after each night the supply decreases as bats break and balls and gloves rip apart."
     "Yeah but the soft-all season's just about over. Pretty soon you'll have to start them playing football and basketball."
     "Oh, izzatso, bright boy," remarked Little Esteban with a nasty sneer, "how much football do you suppose the kids can play with about six footballs and no football suits; and how much basketball do you suppose is possible with about six basketballs and no goals? Sure the kids can play marbles and hop-scotch and blind-man's bluff, but how many of them want to?"
     Little Esteban was pretty sore by now so I began with a little more caution, chuckling heartily into his face. "I guess kids don't go for that kind of stuff like I used to when I was a kid just a few years back. But, then, if you want athletic equipment, why can't everyone chip in and share the costs?"
     Little Esteban scowled at me; his eyes began to glare and I knew I said the wrong thing. "Listen, kiddo," he began, 'If you had any sense at all and if you knew how the people in camp were fixed up for money, you wouldn't dare think of such a plan. When you're getting paid on a scale of $12, $16 and $19, the average income per head for the whole camp comes to about $4 a month, out of which you have to buy your clothing, bedding, haircuts, medicine, cosmetics, shaving cream and razor blades and all the other personal necessities. How much do you suppose is left at the end of the month? I know a lot of families already completely out of funds and they'll have to depend upon relief from other sources, maybe from people right here."
     "Where then do you suppose we're going to get help?" I asked, now shaken up by Little Esteban's words.
     "Well, you can try a lot of different sources but you can't expect too much help because these sources are always helping people in need—we'll have to ask youth, church, student, service and other humanitarian groups and individuals for all kinds of recreational materials-—discarded books, toys, games, and particularly athletic equipment."
     "But how are you going to approach these people?" I asked.
     "If you'll point out to them the dangers there are in allowing young people to shift for themselves without some sort of supervision and without wholesome recreational activity, then they'll realize that problems of juvenile delinquency, unhealthy morals and misdemeanors will develop. You know that there's definite signs of these problems in this community showing up already." So spoke Little Esteban—thoughtful, pensive Little Esteban.
     I gave him a grave and sober nod and began to think and think hard and when I thought I had something to say, I looked up and found Little Esteban had disappeared into the sage bushes.

     POSTON — Poston III elected ten city councilmen at its first election held last week. Serving on the city's first council will be George Horibe, Kelly Yamada, Harvey Iwata, Sam Rokutani, Ed Takahashi, Akira Yebisu, Mack Kadotani, Masa Otani, Roy Kunitake, and Kay Hanada. The Press Bulletin reported intense election interest, with Block 308 registering the largest number of voters.
     POSTON — Prospective Poston teachers have had a high scholastic record, according to a count recently taken at the Poston Teachers' Training School by Hubert Armstrong, instructor.
     POSTON — Eighty per cent of the employees at the new Poston Camouflage Net Factory will be women, it was reported here by the Poston Press Bulletin. The factory, which will be located on the south end of Poston 2, is expected to be completed within 30 days.

     PHOENIX, Ariz. —The response from evacuee Japanese at relocation centers at Poston and Rivers for cotton picking work in Pinal and Maricopa counties has been "very, encouraging," L. J. Korn, assistant project director at Gila River, said here last week. Mr. Korn indicated his belief that most of the evacuees with farming experience would volunteer.
     Earl Mahar, secretary of the Arizona Farm Bureau Federation and liaison officer for the state in negotiations for obtaining cotton picking help, conferred with representatives of Brig. Gen. C. K. Brown concerning the areas where the first volunteer Japanese workers would be used. Gen. Brown was sent to Arizona by Lt. Gen. DeWitt to supervise the army's work of patrolling the exterior boundaries of the harvest areas. The Army was said to be ready "on ten minutes notice" to send guards to the designated areas.
     War. Relocation Authority representatives met with Gov. Sidney Osborn and other Arizona officials last week to work out details of army approved plan to help harvest the long staple cotton crop in Pinal and Maricopa counties. This long staple cotton, according to War Department officials, is a "vital war necessity", used for gliders, balloons, parachutes and for other war equipment.
     The plan had been announced after conferences between Gov. Osborn and Col. Karl R. Bendetsen, representing Gen. DeWitt.

     LAYTON, Utah — Sixty-six alien and citizen Japanese arrived in northern Davis County this week from the relocation center at Poston, Arizona, to assist in the harvesting of Davis County tomato and sugar beet crops. M. P. Whitesides of Layton brought the group to Utah at the request of farmers and the USDA farm board of the county. Eleven are aliens and the remainder are citizens.

     POSTON — Poston dining halls will soon have Poston made noodles for chow mein and Japanese noodles. A noodle factory which will manufacture 1200 to 1500 pounds of noodles daily was scheduled to start production Sept. 14 with more than 60 employees on the staff.

     POSTON-- Block 42 children may soon be picking their dates own from four trees recently transplanted here. The trees wore donated by A. Kitagawa, formerly of Thermal, California, where he raised dates for more than ten years.

     Arizona's long staple cotton is a valuable raw material. It has been declared a military, necessity that the crop be harvested without loss. And thus, General DeWitt, who has steadfastly refused to permit Japanese to re-enter Zone 1, has made an example in order that the residents of Poston and Gila River relocation centers may be able to help in bringing in this valuable crop.
     The opportunity to make a little extra money while contributing to national welfare will be welcomed by many. At the same time, Arizona may be the future home of many of the residents of these two centers even after the war. If farming can be carried on in this region with a friendly environment, it may be better than California. Furthermore, since similar crops may be raised in this region, it is possible that the costs may be less because of the less developed land.
     By playing an important part in the saving of this year's Arizona cotton crop, those of Japanese parentage will be given credit like those who went to Idaho to thin sugar beets.

Life at a WRA Center: Judges Fuji, Imamura Nomura Hear Cases At Relocation Center
"Everyone stand."
"Hear ye, hear ye, the Poston Police court is now in session. Justices Fuji, Imamura and Nomura presiding," intones a Japanese policeman acting as temporary bailiff.
     The second session of the new Judicial Commission is being held. Members of the court are temporary city councilmen, elected by universal ballot. The judges serve without pay. All are American citizens.
     The hall of justice is simplicity itself. It is in complete harmony with the meager furnishings found throughout the camp. It faintly recalls the court of the 1870's, when the tribunal in this Arizona country convened at any suitable spot, gambling hall or dance hall, vacant loft or store. The idea now, as then is to make justice from the building most convenient for all concerned.
     The judges are not gowned in black. They preside in their everyday clothes. The pretentious marble, the showy oak panels, the soft reclining chair for the judge—these are not in evidence.
     The courtroom is so humble that even the most calloused taxpayer would hang his head in shame. The room is barred with stout wire at the five windows. When not used as a courtroom, it serves as a jail. Entering this room, the defendant, guilty or innocent, feels a bit shaky.
     The judges sit behind a table, while the bare headed defendant stands on the other side. The public and the lawbreakers stand along the wall or sit on the three benches, with others using the prisoners cots for seats. The room, filled to standing room, would hold perhaps 30 people.
     The single bit of humor lies in the signs posted on the entrance: Jail, Quarantined.
     Presiding is Seichi Nomura, chief justice. He is in the neighborhood of two score years. He has had considerable legal training. Previously he was an income tax expert.
     George Fuji is about 24 years old. He was a senior at the University of Southern California, majoring in business administration.
     The third justice, Shigeo Imamura, appears to be about 27. He was an employee of the Imperial Valley Irrigation district.

"Traffic Cases"
     The first case on the docket charges a youth with driving without a license. He is released upon presenting his application for a driver's permit.
     Second charge is driving with 4 persons in the front seat. Inspite of the lame excuse put forth by the defendant, the judges concur in a decision of guilty. Sentence is suspended, but the guilty one is placed on probation for 15 days, and he must report every Monday morning.

"Gambling Charge"
     Third is a gambling charge. The fifteen discomfitted people caught in a sudden raid, insist that they were not gambling, but were merely passing time in a very sociable game. But poker chips and several decks of playing cards prove to be damaging evidence.
     The justices are keen, intelligent men, going about their duty with earnestness. There is a whispered consultation on the bench. The prisoners squirm uneasily. The judges hesitate. They are a little frightened by their authority, but they are not lacking in courage. All defendants are found guilty. However, before sentence can be passed, the Chief of Police, Kiyoshi Shigekawa, who also acts as prosecutor, has named three among the guilty men as second offenders.
     The justices again put their heads together, but in a few moments the sentence is pronounced.
     The first offenders are released with a warning. They will be on probation for 30 days. Two of the second offenders are sentenced to two days in jail, while the third must work two days on his regular job without pay. In addition, the trio will be on probation for 45 days. The court reasoned that since the two men were idle, they must meditate upon their sins in the bastile. But the third must continue on at his job, forfeiting his wages as penalty.
     "Fourth case on the docket charges juveniles with stealing government property. The case is transferred to the social welfare department for investigation. In order to inform the community of the law, justices lean to leniency.
     The court is unique. These men are probably among the first American citizens of Japanese ancestry to sit upon a bench. The court has a clerk handling the legal papers and mechanical details, much as would a similar official in another court.
     Up to this time, justice has been dispensed by Caucasians. Because this legal action was taken by those of a different race, the Japanese took the sentences without grimace, often in ignorance or bewilderment.
     However, now in Poston, the picture changes. It is new to the people, being tried by their own kind. For that reason, the judical commissioners, as the three justices are officially known, have two strikes against them.
     Legal counsel can be had, but this practice is not encouraged. Even ingenious lawyers will find it hard to worm through the loopholes of the law, because the court is not cognizant of the finer points of Blackstone. The justices lack legal training, hence they revert, much like Solomon, to common sense and the spirit of fair play to render their verdicts.
     With only the basic facts presented in a bill of complaint, the legal sparring between lawyers, stupid bickering on idle issues, the unseen hands of corruption are lacking. Thus, without the benefit of scintillating dissenting opinions, a decision is laid down after a thorough study of the case. It will be some time before the community will realize the serious purpose behind the judicial commission. But to even the skeptical, the path followed can be seen to be the democratic method.
     * * * Before this court on Tuesday, Sept. 29. 1942, the case of the community of Poston vs. George Fukushima will be heard. The charge against the colonist is assault with a deadly weapon. Thomas Masuda and K. Tamura will defend Fukushima while John Maeno and Saburo Kido will be the joint prosecutors for the community. Elmer Yamamoto enters the picture as the legal interpreter for the judge.